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Drug Abuse Detection

Why

To control drug abuse, to monitor someone with a substance abuse problem, to monitor compliance with prescribed medications, or to detect and evaluate drug intoxication or overdose

When to be tested?
Sometimes required before starting a new job or insurance policy; casually for on-the-job medication testing or athletic testing programs; as mandated when ordered by the court; as indicated when instructed by a health physician to monitor a patient known or suspected of substance abuse; sometimes when you are pregnant, you will get an organ transplant, when you prescribe pain medication, or when you have symptoms that suggest drug intoxication or overdose

Is the champion required?
A random urine sample; sometimes a blood sample drawn from a vein in the arm; hair, saliva or sweat.

Do you need test preparation?

Some over-the-counter and over-the-counter medications may give a positive screening result; before testing, indicate the medicines you have taken and/or for which you have prescriptions.

Drug abuse testing is the detection of one or more illegal and/or prescribed substances in urine, blood, saliva, hair, or sweat. Testing detects substances that are not normally found in the body, with the exception of certain hormones and steroids measured as part of sports testing.

Drug abuse testing usually involves an initial screening test followed by a second test that identifies and/or confirms the presence of a drug or drugs. Most laboratories use commercially available tests that have been developed and optimized to examine urine for “major abuse drugs.”

For most abuse testing drugs, laboratories compare the results of the initial screening with a predetermined incision. Anything under that cut is considered negative; everything above is considered a positive screening result. Furthermore, laboratories may perform testing for masking agents (violators). These can interfere with or test or dilute a urine sample.

Among the drugs of abuse, each class of drugs may contain a range of chemically similar substances. Legal substances that are chemically similar to illegal ones can give a positive review result. Positive screening tests are considered hypothetical. Therefore, screening tests that are positive for one or more classes of drugs are often confirmed by a secondary test that identifies the exact substance present using a very sensitive and specific method, such as gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC). / MS) or liquid chromatography. -tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS / MS).

Some of the most commonly examined classes of medications are listed in the table below.

Substances that are not similar to the prescribed classes may give negative results even though they are present. Some drugs can be difficult to detect with standardized tests, either because the test is not determined to detect the drug, such as methylenedioxy-methamphetamine (MDMA, also known as Ecstasy or Molly), fentanyl, methadone, oxycodone (Oxycontin), etc. meperidine, or buprenorphine, or because the drug does not remain in the body until it is detected, such as gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB).

For sports testing of hormones and steroids, each test performed is usually specific to a single substance and may be quantitative. Athletes, especially those nationally and internationally, are tested for illicit drugs and in addition, the use of a long list of substances called “performance enhancers” is prohibited.

Drug test groups are usually ordered for medical or legal reasons, as part of a “drug-free workplace”, as part of a sports testing program, or to determine compliance with prescribed medications (pain). People who use these substances ingest, inhale, smoke, or inject them into their bodies. How many of these drugs the body absorbs and their effects depend on the substances, how they interact, their purity and strength, their amount, time and manner of administration, as well as an individual’s ability to metabolize and eliminate them from the body. Some medications may interfere with the action or metabolism of other medications, or have side effects, as in the case of taking both medications that both depress the central nervous system (CNS). Drugs can also have competing effects, as can occur when taking one drug that depresses the central nervous system and another that stimulates it.

How was the sample collected for testing?

Urine is the most common sample tested in the review of drug abuse. Other body samples, such as hair, saliva, sweat, and blood, can also be used, but not interchangeably with urine.

Urine and saliva are collected in clean containers. A blood sample is taken by inserting a needle into a vein in the arm. The hair is cut close to the head to collect a sample.

Is any test preparation necessary to ensure sample quality?

Some prescription and over-the-counter medications can give a positive screening result. Examples of false-positive control results; poppy seeds can produce a false positive for opium. Before testing, you must state the medication you have taken and / or for which you have prescriptions in order for your results to be properly interpreted.