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How to prepare?

One of the most important factors in determining the accuracy and reliability of your lab test is you, the patient. Above all, it is a sample of your body (blood, urine, or other specimens; see Collection of Test Samples) on which the test will be performed. Therefore, it is essential to do the following to ensure that the results will be useful and correctly interpreted by your healthcare provider:

Follow the instructions if you have to prepare for the specific test you performed

Tell your healthcare provider about any medications (including vitamins and supplements) you are taking. If you are taking certain prescribed medications, such as anticoagulants (blood thinners) or seizure medications, you may want to write down the exact time at which you took the dose and when the blood was withdrawn. This information will be helpful if your healthcare provider has any questions about your test results.
Certain behaviors can affect some test results, such as excessive physical activity, not getting enough fluids (dehydration), overeating. You may be asked to abstain from some of these activities for certain tests.

It should be noted that many tests do not require special preparation. But for those who act, make sure you follow the instructions given. If you are unsure about the instructions, be sure to ask the appropriate person for clarification. If you are not given instructions, you should ask if there are any special instructions needed to prepare for the test.
Certain behaviors can affect some test results, such as recent or excessive exercise, not getting enough fluids (dehydration), overeating, or recent sexual activity. You may be asked to abstain from some of these activities for certain tests.
It should be noted that many tests do not require special preparation. But for those who act, make sure you follow the instructions given. If you are still unsure about the instructions, be sure to ask the person ordering the test for clarification. If you are not given instructions, you should ask if there are any special instructions needed to prepare for the test.

However, you should always follow the health care provider’s instructions, as the procedures for a particular test may vary from laboratory to laboratory.

One of the most common types of test preparations needed is fasting (skipping all or certain foods) for a few hours before the test or even at night. Some tests may require you to increase or decrease the amount you drink for 10 to 12 hours before the test. There may be specific foods and medications that you should avoid. Or you may be asked not to smoke before the test or even to drink your favorite herbal tea. If you are collecting the specimen at home (such as urine, feces or semen), you may be required to follow certain procedures to transport the sample from home to the laboratory.
Examples of some common laboratory tests that require prior preparation include:

Glucose Tolerance, Fasting, and Two-Hour Blood Glucose Tests: Fasting or eating at specific times may be required.

Lipid profile (triglycerides, cholesterol, etc.): Fasting for 9-12 hours may be required

Creatinine: overnight fasting or abstinence from eating cooked meat may be necessary as some studies have shown that eating cooked meat before testing may temporarily increase creatinine levels.
Fecal occult blood test: Certain food and / or medication restrictions may be required.
Urine culture: a patient may be instructed not to urinate for at least one hour before the test and / or to drink a glass of water 15-20 minutes before sample collection.

5-HIAA: foods such as avocados, bananas, pineapples, plums, nuts, tomatoes, kiwi fruit, and eggplant may interfere with the 5-HIAA measurement and should be avoided for 3 days before and during urine collection; there are also a variety of medications that can affect the 5-HIAA test.

Cortisol: Rest before sample collection may be necessary and, if a saliva sample is to be collected, it may be necessary to refrain from eating, drinking or brushing your teeth for a period of time before the test.
Pap test – the woman may be instructed not to wash or bathe for 24 hours before the Pap test is performed and not to use vaginal creams or foams for 48 hours before the test; she may also be required to abstain from sexual intercourse for 24 to 48 hours before the test and not schedule the test during her menstrual period.
We provide some information about test preparations that you may need to follow before taking certain tests.
As with laboratory testing, as with other aspects of medical care, it is essential that you be open and honest with your healthcare provider. Just as you should give them your full personal, medical and family history, you may need to report deviations from the preparation instructions and / or any medication you take at the time of testing, including vitamins and supplements, as these may affect results. You can also ask about the amount of alcohol you consume, the amount of tobacco you consume, or any medication you may have taken recently. Providing complete, accurate information will help to ensure the reliability of your test results and prompt diagnosis and / or treatment.

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Urine analysis – the first morning urine

To examine the urine, it is necessary to take the first urine in the morning, after personal hygiene (toilet with warm water and soap), and in a sterile urine container. After urination, it is important to present the sample in the laboratory no later than two hours. Store the sample in a cool place.

Urine sample collection 24 hours

To collect a 24-hour urine sample, it is necessary to drink 6 to 8 glasses of water (about 1.5 L) a day before sampling. Urine is collected in clean plastic bottles.

At the first collection of urine in the morning, it is necessary to completely empty the bladder, discard that urine, and record the time. Next, collect all urine samples day and night in a plastic bottle. Exactly 24 hours from the start of collection, empty the bladder completely and add all the urine to the previous amount. This last sample satisfies hunger 24 hours.

Bring the bottle with the entire amount of urine to the lab as soon as possible.

It is necessary to agree with the competent doctor on the cessation of current therapy (it is recommended not to take therapy the day before and on the day of urine collection).

You should not eat bananas, pineapples, avocados, hazelnuts, almonds, and drink coffee.

Blood tests in children are done from a blood sample taken from a baby’s fingertips or a newborn’s heel, as a small amount of blood is enough for the tests.

For preventive purposes, the first blood test is done at six months, and later once a year at any systematic examination.

It is recommended that blood tests be performed on children before each vaccination. The leukocyte count and CRP can be made from a blood sample on the finger in children.

CRP is a very important parameter of the acute inflammatory process in the body and for distinguishing bacterial from inflammatory processes.

Bacterial infections are associated with an increased leukocyte count and an increased CRP value, while viral infections are associated with a lower leukocyte count and a normal, CRP reference value.

Definition of blood reference values, calculation of blood and other biochemical parameters
Reference values ​​(former term of normal value) of blood count and biochemical analysis are predetermined ranges of concentrations of each parameter separately, depending on the patient’s gender and age, as well as the reagents and equipment used in it. what are these analyzes performed.

Many sexually transmitted infections can be present completely without symptoms, regardless of whether you have a regular sexual partner.

However, some infections, if left untreated, can lead to significant health problems, making it difficult or impossible to conceive or damage the fetus during pregnancy.

Your doctor, based on clinical indications, will require an analysis for the presence of a certain infectious agent, or an analysis for certain infections leading to a similar clinical picture.

Which sexually transmitted diseases have been tested in the AvicenaKS laboratory?

At AvicenaKs we apply NAAT (nucleic acid amplification tests) for the following sexually transmitted infectious agents:

  • Ureaplasma (U.parvum and U. urealyticum)
  • Chlamydia trachomatis
  • Mycoplasma
  • Neisseria gonorrhoeae
  • HPV (qualitative and quantitative testing for high-risk carcinogens)
  • Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV 1 + 2)

Preparing patients for sampling for microbiological screening is of particular importance because it can significantly affect screening outcomes. All samples should be taken before starting antibiotic therapy or a few days (at least 48h) after discontinuation of the same.

Urinoculture is the most common analysis in microbiology. Urine preparation for urine culture is especially important in women and young children. It is necessary to wash the external genitalia with warm soapy water, so that the flow goes from front to back. After that the skin dries without smearing any kind of cream. Preparing to give urine for urine culture to women also means washing the genitals with warm soapy water. Particular attention should be paid to children to turn the skin of the percussion and then wash it. Because the first stream of urine practically takes bacteria from the skin and the bacterial flora from the urethra, in a sterile container only a medium stream is taken, where the cup that fills up to one-third of its volume is sufficient. In children it is also desirable to provide conditions that can be wetted directly in sterile containers, but if it is possible, the hygiene of the external genitalia should also be done, the bag placed and checked when the child urinates. The bag should then be removed and brought to the laboratory.

When possible, a urine sample should be taken in the morning so that the patient does not urinate overnight before giving urine. Given that urine is a good nutrient layer for the growth of bacteria it should be submitted to the laboratory as soon as possible or stored in the refrigerator until it is taken to the laboratory. As long as the hygiene of the genitals is not performed well or if the urine has stayed for a long time at room temperature in the culture more bacteria will appear mixed from the flora of the skin, vagina and intestines.
When possible, a urine sample should be taken in the morning so that the patient does not urinate overnight before giving urine. Given that urine is a good nutrient layer for the growth of bacteria it should be submitted to the laboratory as soon as possible or stored in the refrigerator until it is taken to the laboratory. As long as the hygiene of the genitals is not performed well or if the urine has stayed for a long time at room temperature in the culture more bacteria will appear mixed from the flora of the skin, vagina and intestines.

To check for the presence of chlamydia, mycoplasma or ureaplasma in the urine it is necessary to give the first flow (first morning flow) that usually collects the epithelial cells of the urethra in which these microorganisms are found. This is more common in men, because in women a cervical swab is taken to isolate these microorganisms.

When urethritis is suspected to be caused by bacteria, chlamydia, mycoplasma or ureaplasma, it is considered urethral swab and it in the morning before urination, and if it is possible, then always during the day, but so between the last urination and taking the swab to spend at least 2 hours.

Bris nga farinks (fyt) duhet të merret në mëngjes, para larjes së dhëmbëve të ushqimit dhe ujit. Përderisa duhet të merret gjatë ditës, është e nevojshme të kalojnë të paktën 2 h nga konsumi i fundit të ushqimit dhe pijeve.

Nasal swabs should be taken before antibiotic therapy and at least 3-4 hours after the last nasal rinse. It would be best for microbiological examination to collect secretions from the nose, especially if it is dense and colored, because it speaks to the continuation of bacterial infection, unlike the translucent and moist secretion that usually accompanies the viral infection.

When taking the swab from the throat and nose of the child, the parents should hold the child in their arms, one hand should be placed on both his hands and the other should be placed on the forehead, thus accompanying the head until the professional person picks the swab.

Sputum for microbiological analysis is best taken in the morning, before taking food or rinsing the mouth with disinfectants and of course, before starting antibiotic therapy, the mouth is rinsed with plain water, which is spit and after that the patient coughs deeply as much coughing in sterile containers. In parallel with the analysis of sputum, a swab should be made in the oral cavity. There are criteria on the basis of which microbiological examination of the sample under a microscope concludes whether the sample is adequate, i.e. whether saliva is given instead of secretion from the bronchi, and such a sample can not give a visible result, and should not have to further examined.

  • Vaginal and genital swabs (The patient will not have to have sex 24 hours before receiving the swabs).
  • Urethral swabs (Patient should not urinate for at least 1-2 hours before taking the swab)

For analysis, the spermogram requires abstinence for a period of 3-5 days. The semen sample is given in the laboratory or taken to the laboratory in special transport suitcases at 370C within 20 minutes.

For sperm culture the patient must urinate before giving the sperm sample.